FAQ

FAQ 2018-06-29T17:50:05+00:00

The PathoSans® electrolyzed water technology converts softened water and salt into two distinctly different electrolyzed water solutions, also known as ElectroChemically Activated (ECA) solutions.

The first is a highly activated, dilute solution of hypochlorous acid. It is a powerful disinfectant/sanitizer. We call this PathoCide®. The second solution is a highly activated, dilute solution of sodium hydroxide and can be used as an effective detergent and grease cutter. We call this PathoClean®. PathoClean is a natural sanitizer and cleaner will allow you to confidently eliminate toxic chemicals and have a safe, eco-friendly, sustainable cleaning operation throughout your business.

Electrolyzed water is the result of a process known as electrolysis. This is the process of passing an electrical current through a substance to effect a chemical change. In this case, softened tap water is passed through an electrolytic cell that contains multiple chambers, some with a positive electrical charge, the others with a negative charge. A salt bridge is used to pass electricity through the cell. In this design the salt bridge is in an open brine bath.

Salt contains chloride and sodium, the chloride ions are migrated into the positively charged chambers and sodium ions are migrated into the chamber with the negative charge. Both are passed through selective ion transfer membranes that are designed to permit only chloride ions or only sodium ions into the respective chambers.

In the positively charged chamber, chloride ions, which are naturally negatively charged, are attracted to the positive charge and will combine with H2O molecules to create HOCl or hypochlorous acid. Some call this acidic electrolyzed water, electrolyzed oxidative (EO) water or anolyte. We call ours PathoCide®.

In the negatively charged chamber, sodium ions, which are naturally positively charged, are attracted to the negative charge and will combine with a hydrogen and oxygen ion to create NaOH or sodium hydroxide. Some call this alkaline electrolyzed water, electrolyzed reductive (ER) water or catholyte. We call ours PathoClean®.

PathoCide is a powerful disinfectant/sanitizer; PathoClean is a degreaser and cleaner.

The active ingredient in our PathoCide Solution is hypochlorous acid, an acid that the human immune system uses to kill pathogens throughout the body. For example when invading pathogens enter the body; the immune system recognizes the problem and proceeds to destroy the harmful cells with hypochlorous acid.

Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with a variety of microbial sub-cellular compounds, interferes with metabolic processes, and kills individual bacterium exposed within milliseconds. Specifically, it is a great bactericidal due to three different kill mechanisms.

  1. HOCl: Hypochlorous acid attacks the entire membrane “burning” through the cell wall helping to flood the cell. Once inside the cell, hypochlorous acid oxidizes or burns the organelles and other biological matter (lysis kill). Hypochlorous acid causes the disintegration or rupture of the cell membrane, resulting in the release of cell contents and the subsequent death of the cell. This process, called lysis, ensures that resistant bacterial strains can never develop.
  1. High ORP: ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential) is a measure of the strength and ability to react with intracellular and extracellular proteins. The higher the ORP, the more potential to kill the cell.
  1. Acidic pH: The lower the pH, the higher the concentration of hydrogen ions which react with intracellular and extracellular proteins. When the hydrogen ion concentration rises and the cell cannot release the ions to the environment, the pH is lowered to a level that kills the cell.

The main ingredient in bleach is calcium hypochlorite, whereas PathoCide is primarily hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid can be 100 times more powerful an oxidant and disinfectant than is the hypochlorite ion in bleach, yet it is safe to handle. Bleach, however, is known to be cytotoxic, can cause severe tissue damage, and is a breathing irritant.

Bacteria build resistance, over time, to traditional chemicals rendering them ineffective. HOCl has a non-specific/non-discriminatory kill mechanism; therefore no resistance can be built.

At PathoSans, we took a fresh look at electrolysis and created the most advanced next-generation design in the industry. We advanced the technology by submerging our electrolytic cell in a saturated saline solution therefore eliminating the need for a pump. This eliminates a moving part that requires maintenance, increases cell efficiency, and eliminates stress on the ion transfer membranes as no pressure is put on them from pumping water. We also developed and patented the “open brine bath” technology, which keeps the brine exterior to the cell chambers thus eliminating any salt in the output.

No. The salt should be 99.99% pure NaCl which is produced through evaporation and is available from PathoSans or a regional distributor at a nominal cost. You can use the more readily available 99.98% pure NaCl. This will make the brine tank somewhat dirty but can be easily drained and refilled to clean every so often.

As mentioned, PathoSans advanced technology allows us to separate NaCl (salt) and pass the individual ions through selective membranes into separate cartridges to produce two distinct solutions. The chloride ions are electrochemically converted to hypochlorous acid and sodium ions to sodium hydroxide, allowing no salt residue in the final output solutions. In Russian technology electrolyzing systems, this is accomplished by pumping a saline solution directly into the cell chambers. This means that in the negatively charged chamber sodium ions are converted but chloride ions are not.  Conversely, in the positively charged chamber chloride ions are converted but sodium ions are not.  This antiquated process results in salt residue in both solutions, because salt crystals are directly introduced in the electrolysis chambers.  Our system selectively pulls the ions into the appropriate chamber, producing a more pure solution.

There is no acid residual because in the process of killing bacteria the free chlorine is consumed. Used FAC (Free Available Chlorine) becomes a less reactive form that can be rinsed down the drain. Unconsumed ions remain in the water until it evaporates as Cl2. The sodium hydroxide is consumed in the cleaning process.  What is subsequently left is dirty water with no residual chemical.

Tests conducted by faculty in the Department of Food Science and Technology at The University of Georgia proved that treating cutting boards inoculated with E. Coli O157:H7 with electrolyzed water reduced populations of pathogens by a 5.0 log CFU (“Colony Forming Units”) /100cm. In the same study, Listeria monocytogenes biofilms on stainless steel surfaces were reduced by 9 log cycles when exposed to electrolyzed water for 300 seconds. This indicates that electrolyzed water can be effective in reducing populations of pathogens and eliminating biofilms in vegetable wash systems and in ice machines.

In those same tests at The University of Georgia, after five minutes of exposure to only nine milliliters of electrolyzed water salmonella was reduced by 7 log CFU/ml. All colonies were completely inactivated within 10 minutes.

Yes.  Doctors at the University of Tokyo Hospital found that electrolyzed water containing 20 to 22 ppm of hypochlorous acid produced a reduction of Staphylococcus auras and E. Coli equal to chlorine bleach at 60 ppm.

Yes. The Department of Agricultural & Biological Engineering at Penn State University concluded that treating mushrooms with electrolyzed water is a practical strategy to reduce bacterial populations and improve the quality and shelf life of mushrooms.

Yes. At the 220th meeting of scientists of the American Chemical Society, Professor Yen-Con Hung, professor of Food Sciences at the University of Georgia, reported that in tests on lettuce, apples, strawberries, cantaloupe and alfalfa sprouts, electrolyzed water was very effective at killing pathogenic bacteria with no negative effects on quality, appearance or taste.

A study published in the Wellness Directory of Minnesota stated that during poultry washing complete inactivation of C. jejuni occurred within 10 seconds after exposure to electrolyzed water. Additionally, the study concluded that electrolyzed water could also be effective in preventing cross contamination in processing environments.

As ice made from tap water melts, it literally inoculates seafood with any variety of microorganisms. Scientists in Japan and South Korea tested the effects of ice made from electrolyzed water on a variety of pathogens including Pseudomonas flourescens, Pseudomonas putida, E. Coli O157:H7, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus on Saury Oysters and shrimp. Test results determined that all of the above mentioned organisms were significantly reduced when 500 ml of bacterial suspensions were treated with 5 gallons of crushed electrolyzed ice for more than 30 seconds. The electrolyzed ice reduced coliforms and aerobes by 2.0 to 3.0 log CFU/m. The results suggest that the use of electrolyzed ice can be more effective to ensure the freshness and safety of fishery products vulnerable to microbial contamination.

At Le Cordon Bleu School of Culinary Arts, two halves of the same haddock filet were wrapped in plastic wrap. One half was treated with electrolyzed water the other was not.  The treated half was kept refrigerated for seven days and remained fresh with perfect color and remained odorless. The untreated half was unusable for consumption after three days. In an identical experiment treated chicken remained odorless for seven days. Untreated chicken had noticeable odor after five days.

On anything that needs to be clean and free from pathogens. PathoCide can be used on any food product (meat, poultry and egg production use must comply with hypochlorous acid amounts specified in FSIS Directive 7120.1 fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FSISDirectives/7120.1.pdf ). It can be used on any food preparation area and on any surface.  It can also be used as an effective hand sanitizer. Electrolyzed water produced by the PathoSans System is the most versatile and possibly the most effective sanitizer used in the food services and food processing industry.

PathoCide (which is under 100 ppm total available chlorine) is well within the EPA requirements as outlined in CFR-2001-title40-vol24-sec180-940; EPA § 180.940 Tolerance exemptions for active and inert ingredients for use in antimicrobial formulations. Hypochlorous acid CAS registration No. 7681-52-9 when ready for use, the end-use concentration of all hypochlorous acid chemicals in the solution is not to exceed 200 ppm determined as total available chlorine.

PathoClean (the alkaline stream) is a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Sodium hydroxide is a cleaner principally known for its grease cutting ability. It is a basic element in many soaps and detergents. It is an excellent floor, surface or carpet cleaner requiring no additional detergent. In fact, after several floor washings, floors actually look newer because the solution dissolves the soap residue left by conventional cleaners.

PathoClean is more aggressive than traditional non-ECA cleaners because it has a very low surface tension and a very low ORP (-850 to -900). These properties make it an ideal surfactant/detergent. Water molecules form clusters averaging about 14 to 20 molecules per cluster. The electrolysis process breaks these clusters into smaller groups. For example, a given volume of water has 100 clusters averaging 12 molecules each. When electrochemically activated this same volume now has 400 clusters averaging 3 molecules each. The result is the ECA Solution now has more surface area (400 clusters compared to100 clusters) and less surface tension (cluster size of 3 from cluster size of 12). In short, the electrical field interferes with H-bonding allowing for a more concentrated chemical to form.

Due to the electrolytic process other chemicals (H2O2) and reactive oxygen species may form and aid the cleaning process but are so short lived usually they are ignored.

Yes. PathoClean has been tested for dermal and ocular corrosivity by Corrosion Testing Laboratories, Inc. and found to be non-corrosive for both.

Yes, using these solutions eliminates toxic chemical hazards. Thousands of workers are injured by chemicals every year. Using these highly effective cleaners and sanitizers creates a safer work place for all.

Every day in the U.S. we consume 2,000,000 barrels of oil just to make plastic bottles. Tens of thousands of these bottles are used to store toxic cleaning and sanitizing chemicals. These bottles need to be delivered often by train and always by truck. When these bottles are emptied they are discarded, recycled, incinerated or dumped in a landfill where they never decompose. When producing your own solutions on demand, the fossil fuel consumption just mentioned almost disappears. Additionally, you will no longer be putting toxic chemicals into your wastewater disposal system.

PathoSans systems require water hardness < 1 gpg

Hardness can be expressed as grains per gallon or parts per million. If expressed in parts per million. Divide ppm by 17.1 to determine hardness in grains per gallon.

PathoSans systems require iron content < 0.3 mg/l.

0.3 mg/l Iron will be removed by the softener. Higher numbers will require a filter.

According to the FDA Food Code 4-701.10 for Contact Surfaces and Utensils: “Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be sanitized.” The FDA defines sanitization as, the application of cumulative heat or chemicals on cleaned food-contact surfaces that, when evaluated for efficacy, is sufficient to yield a 5 log reduction, which is equal to a 99.999% reduction, of representative disease microorganisms of public health importance.”

Effective sanitization procedures destroy organisms of public health importance that may be present on wiping cloths, food equipment, or utensils after cleaning, or which have been introduced into the rinse solution. It is important that surfaces be clean before being sanitized to allow the sanitizer to achieve its maximum benefit.

In the electrolysis of brine the sodium ion is stripped from the salt molecule and passes through the ion permeable membrane driven by the attraction of the negative charge on the electrode. If the water on the electrode side of the membrane contains minerals (calcium, magnesium, etc.) they will react with OHinstead of Na+ to form an insoluble precipitate that will clog the membrane as well as the water portals. This will make the electrolytic reaction less efficient and eventually lead to premature cell failure.

Also, the electrolytic reaction on the cathode side of the cell raises pH above 9.6 which converts soluble calcium bicarbonate hardness to insoluble calcium carbonate (CaCO3). An increase in pH beyond 10.6 converts soluble magnesium bicarbonate to insoluble magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2. Both of these minerals will deposit on internal surfaces and restrict water flow.

Yes, less than .03% iron is best for longevity of the membranes.

We do not recommend heating PathoCide over 90 degrees Fahrenheit because of the potential to off-gas.

This is the shift of Redox Potential due to electrolysis, which is playing the crucial role. We call the electrolyzed NaOH “active”. The electrical field interferes with H-bonding allowing for a more concentrated chemical to form. The ions in the solution have a looser association and are more available to react with other ions such as oil and dirt. It has a very low surface tension, very low ORP (-850 to -900), and microclustering. Due to the electrolytic process other chemicals (H2O2) and reactive oxygen species may form and aid the cleaning process but are so short lived usually they are ignored

In addition, when producing NaOH through the electrolytic process, we put energy in, but, when mixing a NaOH concentrate with water, we release energy.

All of these factors make it very effective.

For standard systems the maintenance is fairly straightforward and can be performed by on-site maintenance staff. During installation, staff is trained how to make daily checks, monitor systems, refill salt, do periodic cleaning, and change the cell. Any service or maintenance beyond this can likely be conducted via phone assistance from a PathoSans technician.

This information will also be included in the owner’s manual:

  • Fluid concentration readings (test strips / ORP probe / pH probe)
  • System calibration

System inspection and proactive components replacement

Talk to your PathoSans representative about your unique situation. Normal wear parts are the electrolytic cell and the fluid handling components: fittings, tubes, spigots, etc… These wear components are all warranted from defect for 1 year. If you have a high-usage application, where the system is running more than 8 hours per day, then having a spare cell available is a good idea.

The system is house water pressure fed and fills the solution storage tanks according to the system flow rate. From there they can be gravity fed into bottles or storage tanks. Sometimes a pump is added to the PathoClean output if a high-pressure spray application is warranted or the storage location is not physically able to support gravity feed. Usually the storage tanks are outfitted with level controls so that when they become full the PathoSans system will automatically turn off.

Chemical will go directly to storage tanks in most cases. The tanks have overflow outlets to drain. The chemicals are produced in equal quantities of cleaner and sanitizer so if one solution is used more quickly than another then one tank may overflow to drain.

The four factors of cleaning are time, temperature, concentration (or reactivity), and mechanical force. If one of the factors is missing or greatly reduced you must increase one of the others to compensate. The main cleaning factor of PathoClean is the chemical reaction that converts oils and other organic matter to soap. As with all chemical reactions there is an energy barrier to overcome in order to react. Temperature is a very effective way to increase the energy of a substance and facilitate its conversion. As a rough approximation, for many reactions happening at around room temperature, the rate of reaction doubles for every 10°C rise in temperature. Liquid oils have a relatively low reaction threshold and will require very little heat. In many cases room temperature is sufficient. For more solid oils and foodstuff additional heat may be helpful for conversion and removal. If foodstuff is baked on or carbonized higher temperatures and even some mechanical action may be needed.